There three main branches of engineering common in construction. These are:
· Structural Engineering: this is concerned with the design of the structure of the building, its resolution, provision of working drawings and site follow-up up until the whole structural frame is completed. The structure of the building is largely informed by the loads envisaged for the construction product at hand. These loads are either:
· Dead loads: Stationary weights like those of the building itself, furniture, services, loft water tanks, et cetera.
· Live loads: motion weights like those of persons, wind, snow et cetera.
It is common to allow an extra carrying capacity for unseen weights and movement as may be experienced. This is especially so in earthquake prone areas.
Structural drawings act as a guide on the shapes, sizes and compositions of the various structural members like beams and columns.
Site follow-up includes inspection of materials and procedures. It also involves tests on various samples taken during the actual construction, thereby representing the capability and compliance of the works themselves. A good example here is the structural concrete test known as cube crushing test.
At the end of the project, the structural engineer submits structural records for the building including as-built drawings, test carried out and their results and the building’s capability.
· Mechanical Engineering: this involves mechanical services for the building. These include;
· Plumbing and Drainage: This is concerned with the provision of water into the building as well as removal of used water from the building and its safe disposal. The engineer is concerned with establishing;
· How much water is required for the 永昇棚業 activities of the building and in what condition (wholesome, sterile etcetera).
· Where and how the water will be sourced.
· How the water will be distributed around the building, industry et cetera.
· How the water will be stored for use.
· How used water will be collected for disposal or reuse.
· How water for disposal will be safely done away with.
· Air conditioning: This is concerned with the modification or alteration of the conditions of air, mainly heat, humidity and movement.
· Ventilation: It is concerned with the exchange of used air with fresh air. It is usually done by forcing used air out, either by supplying new air, by drawing out the used air or both.
· Lifts and Elevators: These are machines provided for vertical motion.
· Fire fighting solutions: Depending on the fire risks envisaged, mainly owing to the usage of the space.
· Electrical Engineering: This is principally concerned with electrical installations, although others like structural cabling for data, voice and security are usually put on board, possibly because of the convenience of using the same facilities like cable trays and trucking.
For all these specialties, the following will be done:
· Proposal including implications, especially financial
· Design of the most appropriate systems
· Follow-up during construction
· Reporting on completion